Rock & Waste

Rock analyses include acid-base, whole rock and leaching tests. The acid and neutralisation potential of a rock gives an indication of its potential to generate acid-mine drainage. Whole rock analyses are usually part of rock and waste characterisation. Leaching tests are used to determine the leachability of chemicals and forms an integral part of hazardous waste classification.

Acid and neutralisation potential

  • paste pH
  • Acid-base accounting (ABA)
  • Net-acid generation (NAG) test
  • Kinetic column leach tests

Rock geochemistry and mineralogy

  • Total sulphur and carbon
  • Weight dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) of majors and traces on pressed pellet
  • Acid digestion or Aqua Regia digestion with ICP of metals
  • X-ray diffraction (XRD) (outsourced)
  • Petrographic studies or other microscopic studies


  • Acetic acid (TCLP) extraction
  • Acid rain extraction
  • Distilled water extraction
  • Kinetic column leach tests

Furnace related methods

  • Total sulphur and carbon (Infrared)
  • Moisture content
  • Volatile and ash content